Ong Fu Jian Language selector
Health Education
Knowledge on TCM
Knowledge on chinese herbs
Accupuncture & Moxibustion
Qigong & Chinese Massage
Traditional Chinese Dietary

You are in: OngFuJian > Health Education > Acupuncture and Moxibustion

Acupuncture and Moxibustion

Throughout his life, Dr Paul NOGIER has been interested in medical research. His appreciation of the techniques of acupuncture, psychotherapy, homeopathy and manual medicine, led him, in 1951, to draw up the basis of auriculotherapy, then, about ten years later, to develop auriculomedicine. The results of Paul NOGIER's work are now well known, and are taught and used in Europe, the United States and even in China, the birth place of acupuncture.
These two techniques were recently combined under the term ear acupuncture.

Dr. Paul Nogier’s Discoveries

The discovery of auriculotherapy
In the beginning, Dr Paul NOGIER sometimes saw patients presenting with cauterization points on the ear, who claimed to have been relieved of their sciatica as a result of this treatment.

Intrigued Dr Paul NOGIER decided to investigate this phenomenon and found that points on the external ear corresponded to certain organs or systems. After more than fifteen years of experimentation, he established a map of the ear. The shape of all of these points fairly closely resembles the image of an inverted foetus.

The principle of auriculotherapy is based on the fact that a point or a zone on the ear corresponds to an organ or a system. The mechanism of action is a reflex mechanism. In auriculotherapy, a pathological point is detected by the pain reaction to local pressure or by using an electrical detector. Treatment can be performed by massage of the point, by application of a needle or by electrical or laser stimulation.

The precision of this representation of reflex points on the external ear offers many possibilities for both diagnosis and treatment.

The discovery of Auriculomedicine
Auriculomedicine is the logical extension of auriculotherapy. As he developed his practice, Dr Paul NOGIER noticed that auriculotherapy had little effect on certain diseases. Based on his experience with acupuncture, he began to take his patients' pulse while examining their ears. He demonstrated variations of pulse when he touched different zones of the ear.

Extending his research on the pulse even further, he tested many forms of stimulation (magnets, colours, various substances, etc.), and showed that the body is sensitive to 7 frequencies. These frequencies, used for both diagnosis and treatment, represent the information received or emitted by our body. They are called Nogier Frequencies.

VAS or Nogier’s Pulse
Auriculomedicine is a reflex method based on modifications of the Nogier pulse in response to stimulation.
The Nogier‘s pulse, called RAC in French for Réflexe Auriculo-Cardiaque or Autonomic Circulatory Reaction, corresponds to the English term VAS (Vascular Autonomic Signal).

In practice, the physician tests the sensitivity of the sensors of the skin of the patient's body or external ear. With one hand, he holds an appropriate detector, and the other, it takes the patient's pulse.
The patient's radial pulse is taken very carefully and requires a great deal of practice in order to be performed rigorously. The pulse is conventionally taken with the thumb placed perpendicularly to the radial artery against the styloid process.

The VAS phenomenon is usually felt by the practitioner as a qualitative variation of perception of the pulse. It starts 1 to 3 cycles after application of a stimulus. This signal occurs without any alteration of heart rate and can last for 8 to 15 cardiac cycles.

Mechanical recording of the vascular signal perceived clinically by taking the pulse manually has not yet been objectively demonstrated. This demonstration is difficult, as it consists of trying to reproduce a fine sensory perception instrumentally.

However, it is clear that the Nogier pulse involves the autonomic system (sympathetic and parasympathetic). Modification of the VAS is mediated by the unconscious autonomic nervous system and corresponds to a neurological reflex.

Until a device has been developed that is able to measure the VAS signal, physicians continue to learn the manual pulse taking technique. Several schools now teach this technique. In particular, in Lyon, the cradle of auriculotherapy, there is an association, the Groupement Lyonnais d'Etude Médicale, which provides such courses.

Nogier Frequencies
Seven frequencies were developed experimentally by Dr Paul Nogier in the 1970s. These frequencies are constantly used in routine medical practice, as they are preferentially recognized by the body. They enter into resonance with the body and specific exert effects on the body. These frequencies are used both for detection and for treatment.

Frequencies U A B C D E F G
Value (Hz) 1.14 2.28 4.56 9.125 18.25 36.5 73 146

The U frequency is the so-called "universal" frequency and the resulting 7 fundamental frequencies are multiples of 2.
The same frequencies are used for laser devices, but at a higher harmonic. They have an identical action.

Frequencies A B C D E F G
Value (Hz) 292 584 1168 2336 4672 73 146

Variations with respect to reference frequencies are also used. They range from -30% to +30%.

Definition of Frequencies by Drs Paul and Raphaël Nogier:

The "A" frequency is associated, in the animal kingdom, with non-organized, embryonic structures. It is the frequency of the primitive living being; it is in sympathy with the cell in the crude, undifferentiated state. This frequency, the most archaic can also be considered to be the most anarchic.

The more elaborate "B" frequency is specific to the nutritional visceral system and is related to the primitive gastrointestinal apparatus.

The "C" frequency indicates motor elements of the body. It reflects movement, the limbs, the renal system, the genital tract.

The "D" frequency leads us to a higher level of organization, as it introduces the concept of symmetry, by selectively affecting certain unpaired organs, presenting the characteristic of being solitary, but anatomically symmetrical; for example the corpus callosum or the white commissure, two symmetrical cerebral structures, situated between the right hemisphere and the left hemisphere.

The "E" frequency is that of the spinal cord and central nervous system, which perceives and communicates between functional units situated at different levels.

The "F" frequency represents subcortical cerebral regions. These structures are found in the brain of higher animals, dogs, for example.

The "G" frequency resonates with the most elaborate structures of the body, those of the cerebral cortex, the typically human part of the brain, which gives man the capacity to think, create and imagine.

The following table summarizes the main therapeutic applications of Nogier Frequencies:

A action on the tissues
wounds, epithelial tumours,epidermal reactions
B gastrointestinal and metabolic problems
trophic functions, polarity, parasympathetic, interoceptive impulses
C locomotor problems
ergotropic function, sympathetic polarity
D disorders of laterality
E pain and nerve conduction
spinal cord diseases
F brain and bone reconstruction
G action on the cerebral cortex
cortical, mental disorders

The effects can be potentiated by associating various frequencies. These combinations of frequencies are especially used in local therapy:

Frequencies E G A B F C D G

From Acupuncture Microsystems to Nogier’s Auricular Microysystem

1. Acupuncture Microsystems
Historically, microsystems have their origin within the premises of Chinese medicine. This system emphasizes the unity of the body, mind, and energy. An example is the tongue microsystem, though this is primarily used for diagnostic purposes and not often for therapeutic input.

Microsystems are considered holographic images of the entire individual projected onto a particular part of the body. The ear, hand, scalp, foot, face, tongue, and the iris of the eye are some of the commonly recognized acupuncture microsystems.

The word "hologram" is Greek in origin and is composed of 2 parts: "holo", meaning whole and "gram", meaning message; thus, the word "hologram" literally means the whole message. This eloquently reflects the uniqueness of the acupuncture microsystems.

A hologram is a 3-dimensional image of a given object that is created by energy interference patterns. A holographic image is produced by projecting a laser beam on a subject, and via a reflecting mirror, so that a 3-dimensional image of that subject will be formed on a holographic plate. Figure 1A shows the formation of a 3-dimensional image of a dog. If a small piece of this 3-dimensional image is cut out and then subjected to a decoding laser beam, the resulting image will be that of the whole subject.Each fragment of the hologram will always display a picture of the entire dog even if the fragment contained no apparent visible piece of the dog at all (Figure 1B). If we consider the image of the dog to represent the whole body, and the small piece cut to represent the ear, foot, or hand (or any acupuncture microsystem), it is apparent how the ear or the hand can project the entire body's structures and organs.

Figure 1A. Laser images.

Figure 1B. Laser fragments.

Karl Pribram, a neurophysiologist at Stanford University, concluded in 1975 that the brain was holographically structured.The holographic image demonstrates an interesting principle that simply states, "Every piece contains the essence of the whole." This should not be surprising when we realize that the same principle applies to the science of cloning; here it is obvious that every cell contains a copy of the master DNA blueprint. This same principle is also the basis of acupuncture microsystems.

2. Nogier’s Auricular Microysystem
Nogier's discovery, known as "Auricular Therapy," is defined as a physical reflex therapy system based on the detection and treatment of patho-physiologic and pain problems within the body at somatotopic correspondence zones on the auricle. The brilliant recognition of these 3 phases has enabled practitioners to treat patients more efficiently.

In the 1950s, Dr Paul Nogier introduced the Auricular Microsystem. He soon realized that every organ is projected onto the ear in 3 different locations.The 3 different projections were named "phases" which have been recognized as Phase 1, Phase 2, and Phase 3.

In Phase 1, tissues are projected reflecting either a normal physiological status or functional stage of pathophysiological changes. This often reflects pathology of a duration ranging from minutes to days, although the pathophysiological nature is more important than the time frame of tissue insult.

In Phase 2, tissues with a dense or degenerative pathophysiology are projected. This is commonly seen in chronic ailments, although it may occur quite quickly, as with a crushing trauma to a limb or more chronic illnesses such as rheumatoid arthritis and cancer.

Phase 3 is considered an intermediate phase,which falls between Phase 1 and Phase 2. It projects organs with non-degenerative pathology, commonly inflammatory or transitional in nature. The pathology in this phase may be manifest from days to years, but has not progressed to a state of dense tissue degeneration.

In essence, the 3 phases reflect functional pathology (Phase 1), intermediate or inflammatory pathology (Phase 3), and dense, degenerative conditions (Phase 2).

Core Theories for Ariculomedicine

一. Nogier’s Phases
Phases, as introduced by Nogier, are defined as transitory holographic projections of the entire body and all the organs on an acupuncture microsystem. These projections are dependent on the integrative abilities of the brain in response to continuous processing of energetic, physiological, and pathological information received from the various organs of the body, including the brain itself.The 3 phases are superimposed on each other with a distinct projection, and multiple phases may exist simultaneously. For example, a non-degenerative, inflammatory arthritis condition in the knee may exist simultaneously with an acute flare-up of the same tissue; this reflects the presence of both Phase 1 and Phase 3 concurrently.

Three Essential Principles
The following 3 essential principles were utilized by Nogier and his colleagues for identification of phases:
①Changes in the pulse (Vascular Autonomic Signal or VAS)
②The Electromagnetic Field of the ear (EMF)
③The use of filters.
The above principles were crucial to identifying the projections of the organs on the ear in their 3 phases and laid down the foundations for the discovery of a more sophisticated system known as "Auricular Medicine." This presents as an energetic reflex therapy system. This system offers invaluable information to help with diagnosis and additional unique ways to help with the treatment of pathological problems at somatotopic correspondence points on the auricle. It is entirely based on the study of changes of the arterial pulse as perceived by the thumb on the radial artery; pulse characteristics vary when the body is exposed to various biological stresses.

The Vascular Autonomic Signal (VAS)
Discovered by Dr. Rene Leriche and applied clinically by Nogier, the Vascular Autonomic Signal (VAS) is simply a change in the quality of the pulse in response to various stressors to which the body may be exposed.The pulse is known to be a stationary wave resulting from the intersection of the waves generated through the pumping action of the heart and similar waves that have already been reflected from points of branching and of tapering of the blood vessels into small resistance vessels (capillaries).Consequently, the intensity of the pulse will change depending on the status of the vascular resistance of the capillaries. The reflecting wave either reinforces or weakens the incoming wave. Nogier called a reinforced pulse wave a "positive VAS," which is described as being fuller, vibrant, bulging, or harder. He called the weakened pulse wave a "negative VAS", which is described as soft, hollow, or dull.The VAS may be defined as a physiologic response of the vascular system brought on by exposure to macro-information as well as micro-information. Such a response is mediated by the autonomic nervous system, causing changes in the amplitude of the peripheral pulses.

The VAS changes are best felt over the radial artery in the manner described in Figure 1. Obviously, any stressor that the body perceives will stimulate the autonomic nervous system, leading to increased sympathetic tone, which results in vasoconstriction of the peripheral blood vessels, including the capillaries. This will re-enforce the reflecting wave leading to an increase in the amplitude of the stationary pulse wave, which Nogier labeled as "positive VAS."

VAS examination zones
Figure 1. VAS examination zones

2. The Electromagnetic Field (EMF) of the Ear
The EMF of the ear is the 2nd concept used by Nogier and his colleagues in the development of Auricular Medicine. Since all of our cells are electrically charged, EMF surround the cells as well as the organs. Since the ear is a microsystem, an EMF is expected to surround that microsystem. The EMF reflects the energetic status of the body and all its tissues and organs. Consequently, any disturbed tissue or organ will cause a change in the overall EMF of the ear (or any other microsystem). Nogier's work identified an EMF specific to the ear extending (perpendicular to "Zero Point") out to a distance of approximately 1 cm beyond the ear itself in resting, non-stressed, normal physiological conditions.This reflects a normal energetic resting status for the microsystem. Any change in the pathophysiological status of any organ will result in stress that is then reflected as an overall expansion of this auricular EMF beyond the resting position.

The 3rd principal used by Nogier was the use of filters. Filters consist of a rubber holder containing a pair of inert plastic plates that hold a particular substance to be used as a potential stressor. Filters are made of diseased tissues, toxic substances, or any pathological organisms.

Nogier also experimented with different colors and was able to identify particular grades of colors with frequencies resonating with different body organs. He also identified certain colors whose frequencies resonated with the 3 different phases previously mentioned. In addition, Nogier was able to identify particular areas of the body surface that appeared to have more of a sympathetic tone than a parasympathetic tone, and vice versa. The arms, legs, posterior neck, and posterior trunk are found to exhibit a rather dominant sympathetic tone compared to the anterior chest, anterior abdomen, anterior neck and the head, which exhibit a more dominant parasympathetic tone (Figure 2).

Sympathetic and parasympathetic
Figure 2. Sympathetic and parasympathetic

By applying filters to different parts of the body, the skin will receive micro-information concerning the content of the filter while simultaneously and temporarily ignoring all other micro-information available. Depending on whether that skin area is sympathetic or parasympathetic in nature as classified above, the micro-information received will be processed differently. If the filter is applied to a sympathetic area of the body surface, the micro-information appears to be temporarily amplified. In contrast, if the filter is applied to an area of the body that exhibits more parasympathetic tone, the micro-information appears to be temporarily reduced, minimized, or even cancelled.

The above information becomes instrumental when trying to localize the projection of any body organ or tissue on the acupuncture microsystem. If, for example, one tries to localize the projection of the kidney onto the ear or the hand, it is appropriate to apply a filter containing kidney tissues on a sympathetically oriented body surface (the arms or the legs). If the patient does have kidney pathology, this filter would be considered a stressor to that particular patient. As a result, the stress induced would lead to 2 different reactions. First, the stress would change the EMF of the kidney as a result of the body's resonance with the filter's contents. Consequently, the projection of the kidney on the microsystem would reflect that stress. The stress would lead to the expansion of the EMF of the microsystem of the ear (or the hand) beyond the resting potential of 1 cm. Secondly, the autonomic nervous system will react to the stressor. The stress will stimulate the sympathetic nervous system leading to changes in the caliber of the capillaries in the hand. This in turn will lead to a positive VAS. A positive VAS indicates that the filter used is a stressor. Since the filter contains kidney tissues, a positive VAS strongly suggests an energetic disturbance of the kidneys.

By identifying the EMF of the ear or the hand, an expansion beyond the resting position is perceived in response to stress. By using a reflecting object called a black/white hammer, the source of that energetic stress may be identified (Figure 3). When its white tip is positioned vertically and directly above the source of energetic stress, it will reflect that energy back to its source; this will exacerbate the degree of stress of that source point. This is immediately identified through change in the pulse wave that becomes stronger, fuller, and more vibrant, i.e., a positive VAS. By identifying the source of the energetic stress, the practitioner is in effect identifying the projection site of the kidney. Depending on the patient's history as well as by utilizing certain filters introduced by Nogier, the practitioner will be able to identify the exact phase of the kidney pathology. Nogier also introduced certain color filters that resonate with each of the phases, thus facilitating the identification of the exact phase of an organ or tissue's pathophysiology. In this manner, it is possible to identify the projection sites of any organ or tissue in any of the 3 positions or projections on any microsystem.

Black and white hammer
Figure 3. Black and white hammer

[Extracted from“Soliman-Frank 3-Phase Hand Acupuncture.Nader E. Soliman, MD;Bryan L. Frank, MD. Medical Acupuncture. Vol. 17, #1”]